In July of 1852, Frederick Douglass delivered a speech titled “What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?,” a call for the promise of liberty be applied equally to all Americans. Douglass’s speech emphasized that American slavery and American...Read More
Paradox and Promise
African Americans entered the last quarter of the 20th century with cautious optimism and by the turn of the 21st century, black people were more culturally, politically, and economically diverse than ever. But in an era when African Americans prominently influenced American cultural and political affairs, racial equity and social justice remained sought-after goals rather than accomplishments.