The Springfield Race Riot took place August 14-16, 1908 when a mob of thousands of white Americans and European immigrants who, incensed over two reported assaults on white women by black men, carried out a series of violent attacks against the African American community in Springfield, Illinois. The mob destroyed homes, black-owned businesses, and the businesses of whites who appeared too sympathetic to African Americans. The state militia was called in an attempt to maintain order, and at least nine black residents died. The victims included Scott Burton, an African American barber who attempted to defend his home, and William Donnegan, an 84-year-old cobbler who was married to a white woman. Both men were lynched. The violent race riot in a Northern city was a catalyst for the formation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in early 1909.