Based on an exhibition that opened in Oct. 2004 at the Newberry Library, Chicago, Ill.
Introduction : What can we learn from a bicentennial? / Frederick E. Hoxie -- pt. 1: The Indian country. The arrival of horses accelerates trade and cultural change -- A brilliant plan for living : creators -- A brilliant plan for living : gifts -- A brilliant plan for living : men and women -- A vast network of partners -- pt. 2: Crossing the Indian country. What did the Americans know? -- Celebrating the new year and surviving the winter with the Mandans, January 1805 -- Trading for horses and finding their way, August-September 1805 -- Rescued by the Nez Perces -- New Year's Day 1806 and the Oregon winter -- Friends and trading partners on the Upper Columbia -- A confrontation in Montana -- pt. 3: A new nation comes to the Indian country. Two views of western North America -- The fur trade -- New settlers -- Miners -- Ranchers -- Missionaries and teachers -- pt. 4: The Indian country today. Salmon restoration -- Environmental protection -- Language preservation -- Education and cultural preservation -- The meaning of the Lewis and Clark bicentennial for Native Americans -- Conclusion : Lewis and Clark reconsidered : some sober second thoughts / James P. Ronda
NMAI copy Purchased from the NMAI Library Endowment.
Visions of conquest : Manifest Destiny and Lebensraum -- National policies of race and space -- Strategy and warfare -- Massacre and atrocity -- War in the shadows : guerrilla warfare in the West and the East
As he prepared to wage his war of annihilation on the Eastern Front, Adolf Hitler repeatedly drew parallels between the Nazi quest for Lebensraum, or living space, in Eastern Europe and the United States's westward expansion under the banner of Manifest Destiny. The peoples of Eastern Europe were, he said, his "redskins," and for his colonial fantasy of a "German East" he claimed a historical precedent in the United States's displacement and killing of the native population. Edward B. Westermann examines the validity, and value, of this claim in Hitler's Ostkrieg and the Indian Wars. The book takes an empirical approach that highlights areas of similarity and continuity, but also explores key distinctions and differences between these two national projects. The westward march of American empire and the Nazi conquest of the East offer clear parallels, not least that both cases fused a sense of national purpose with racial stereotypes that aided in the exclusion, expropriation, and killing of peoples. Westermann evaluates the philosophies of Manifest Destiny and Lebensraum that justified both conquests, the national and administrative policies that framed Nazi and U.S. governmental involvement in these efforts, the military strategies that supported each nation's political goals, and the role of massacre and atrocity in both processes. Important differences emerge: a goal of annihilation versus one of assimilation and acculturation; a planned military campaign versus a confused strategy of pacification and punishment; large-scale atrocity as routine versus massacre as exception.