Inhabitants of the islands once called Quisqueya / Kiskeya (Dominican Republic) and Borinquen / Borikén (Puerto Rico) are the people Columbus encountered in the Caribbean. Some scholars contend these indigenous populations — often referred to under the umbrella term “Taíno”— ceased to exist just decades after Europeans arrived. Others have chronicled Taíno legacies in contemporary Latino Caribbean culture asserting the presence of descendant populations today.

In this exchange, Antonio Curet a curator of Caribbean archaeology, tells us what an object in the National Museum of the American Indian collection reveals about the rituals and beliefs of the indigenous inhabitants of Quisqueya. L. Stephen Velasquez a curator of Latino history with the National Museum of American History, similarly looks to devotional objects in the museum's collection that reflect the religious, racial, and regional identities of their Puerto Rican users. Finally, the National Museum of African American History and Culture's Latino Studies curator,  Ariana Curtis, unpacks how slavery and colonialism shaped these identities and how Caribbean Latinos foster new connections to their Taíno ancestors.

Story in a Bottle

Antonio Curet, Museum Curator, NMAI

This beautifully made bottle was found in a cave in 1916, during an expedition to the Dominican Republic funded by the Museum of the American Indian in New York. The artifact dates back to the 15th century when it would have been used by the natives of Hispaniola (the island that encompasses the Dominican Republic and Haiti).

Effigy vessel from Dominican Republic, AD 1200-1500​: The bottle most likely represents Deminan Caracaracol, mythical hero of the native people of Hispaniola. See more.

Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian. Collected by Theodoor de Booy in expedition to Dominican Republic funded by the Museum of the American Indian in New York. (Catalog Number 053753).

A male figure with frog-like legs and a hump resembling a turtle is carved into the bottle. These details suggest that the bottle is connected to the story of Deminan Caracaracol, a mythical figure of the Ancient Caribbean. In the myth, Deminan’s back swells and aches after being hit, and a turtle eventually emerges from the hump.

Antonio Curet talks archeology at the Smithsonian: Meet Antonio Curet, Curator of the archeological collections from Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean at the National Museum of the American Indian.

Smithsonian Institution

The figure on the bottle also wears a highly decorated bonnet, belt, arm bands, and elaborate ear spools (ornaments inserted in the ear lobes). It’s interesting to note that the semi-squatting position and erect penis suggest that he has inhaled cohoba, a ritual hallucinogen, to contact the ancestors or supernatural beings. 

Photograph of conservator, W. C. Orchard, sitting on a chair or stool with a tool in his left hand and his right hand on the shoulder of the effigy vessel.
W. C. Orchard, museum staff member, ca. 1916, restoring the effigy vessel shortly after its arrival at the Museum of the American Indian in New York. Credit: Gift from W. C. Orchard. National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution, (Catalog number L00400). See more.
Photograph of stone collar made of volcanic stone and approximately 20 inches long and 9 inches wide.
Stone collar from Puerto Rico, n.d. Although of unknown function, stone collars tend to be significantly more common in Puerto Rico than any other island of the Caribbean. Credit: Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian. (Catalog number 016662). See more.
Photograph of wooden figure made of a hollow tree trunk with a face, arms, bent knees and penis carved on the surface of the trunk.
Wooden figure from Haiti made of a hollow tree trunk, n.d. The male figure represented in bas-relief on the surface of this object is similar to the ceramic effigy bottle: it is also squatting, wearing ear spools, and has an erect penis. Wooden representations of gods, mythical figures, or ancestors are more common in Hispaniola, but they are almost completely absent in Puerto Rico. Credit: Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian. Collected by Frank R. Cumbrie, Jr. in expedition to Haiti funded by the Museum of the American Indian in New York (Catalog number 198807). See more.

When I see objects like this one, I admire the aesthetics and craftsmanship of the ancient Caribbean societies. But, I also think about the contemporary legacy of those groups.  Readers may notice that the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) records associate this object with the Taínos of the Greater Antilles, Bahamas, and some of the Lesser Antilles. As an anthropologist of the Caribbean, I’ve written about how the term Taíno lacks specificity because a multitude of groups inhabited those islands.

Archaeologists are interested in details Antonio Curet Museum Curator, NMAI

The Caribbean in the 1400s was as ethnically diverse as the Caribbean of today. Looking at the bottle through this lens, I see not only the myth it attempts to embody, but also the terms and concepts that have been used to categorize indigenous people across the Caribbean.


Crossroads of the Caribbean

L. Stephen Velasquez, Museum Curator, NMAH

The bottle recovered from a cave on the Caribbean island of today’s Dominican Republic tells a story with meaning for the people of that community. For me, as a curator specializing in Latino history, I was immediately reminded of an object from the Teodoro Vidal collection at the National Museum of American History. Vidal was a collector and historian who amassed a trove of items related to everyday life in Puerto Rico. He collected musical instruments, carnival costumes, cooking implements, textiles, and religious items, including the carved wooden figures known as santos, or bultos. These figures are tied to the Catholic tradition on the island, and are often used in home worship contexts that pay homage to a saint or Virgin. 

The santos in Vidal’s collection, like the effigy bottle from the Dominican Republic, are figurative ritual objects that tell stories of Caribbean life and devotion, layered in the regions’ histories. Such objects reflect the myths, beliefs, and traditions that provide meaning and significance for Latino Caribbean communities and tie the communities together.

Carved wooden image of Virgen de Hormigueros (Virgen de Monserrate) is a  mulatta, with brown skin, and  mixed African and European ancestry, holding a baby in lap.  A figure of a man is standing in front of a bull about to charge.

La Virgen de Hormigueros (Virgen de Monserrate): carved wooden image from Puerto Rico. See more.

Teodoro Vidal Collection, Division of Home and Community Life, National Museum of American History

The figure above, La Virgen de Hormigueros (Virgen de Monserrate), represents the story of a miracle the Virgin performed to save a man in the small rural Puerto Rican town of Hormigueros. The Virgin is a mulatta—a woman of mixed African and European descent. She is brown-skinned and holds a child. She appears before a man, a farmer often referred to as a jibaro, who is standing in front of a bull about to charge. The man asks for her aid and protection from the charging bull. She intervenes, stopping the bull and saving the man. In honor of the miracle, the community built a church at the spot of the miracle in Hormigueros. 

Color photo of two dancers in the street dressed in costume, one red and yellow with devil mask. The other is in all black.

Carnival Scene: Carnival is celebrated at the beginning of Catholic Lenten festival. Introduced by the Spanish and incorporating many African customs, carnival is held in Lent, with street festivals and costumed figures wearing devil masks (known as vejigantes) and mixing Catholic, European, and African elements.

Teodoro Vidal Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Such objects reflect the myths, beliefs, and traditions that provide meaning and significance for Latino Caribbean communities and tie the communities together.

It is significant that the Virgin’s depiction is based on the Virgen of Monserrate from Spain, also a mulatta, painted figure. The people of Puerto Rico see themselves in these representations because they too are mixed with African and European ancestry. They may also identify with the rural aspects of Puerto Rican life presented through the bull and jibaro figure. Embodying the region’s mix of peoples and traditions, these figurative objects speak to shared histories, experiences, and cultures across the Caribbean, and are as meaningful today as when they were created.

Black and white image of Jack Agüeros looking into a museum case of santo figures.

El Museo del Barrio: Jack Agüeros, Director of El Museo del Barrio in 1980, as he looks into a case of santo figures. The migration to the U.S. by Caribbean migrants also creates another community and mixing of cultures and traditions. El Museo del Barrio was founded in 1969 to serve the community of Puerto Ricans in New York. Photograph by Frank Espada. See more.

The Frank Espada Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.


Subversive Labels

Ariana Curtis, Museum Curator, NMAAHC

When I first saw this bottle, I immediately thought “Taíno,” a frequently used and widely understood term for indigenous people from the Caribbean. Contact with Europeans devastated indigenous populations like the “Taínos,” but it did not eliminate them. Forced and voluntary unions between Europeans and indigenous populations are well documented. Lesser known, however, is the complicated history connecting Native and African peoples for over 500 years.

This first page of a two-page handwritten letter from 1857 notes, in Spanish, the capture of maroons, cimarrones in Spanish, in Cienfuegos, Cuba.

The Capture of Maroons, 1857: This handwritten letter, in Spanish, mentions the capture of maroons (cimarrones) in Cienfuegos, Cuba.

Collection of the National Museum of African American History and Culture, 2010.1.119

Throughout the Americas indigenous men and women fled captivity to live with blacks in maroon settlements. The Spanish word “zambo” is a common term referring to a person of mixed African and indigenous heritage. In the U.S., anti-black racism led some tribes to outlaw intermarriage with blacks, while others like the Cherokee were slave owners. Stringent racial categorizations and anti-miscegenation laws in the U.S. produced fewer terminologies for racial mixing than in Latin America. But mixing did occur. In the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) exhibition IndiVisible: African-Native American Lives in the Americas, the deliberately capitalized “V” emboldens the visibility of Americans of Native and African ancestry.

Digital image of a Perryman family reunion. The color image is of twenty people kneeling and standing in two rows in a yard in front of a house. They are smiling and looking at the photographer. They are dressed formally with the men wearing suits and the women wearing dresses. Three small children are in the photograph.

Family Reunion, June 1996: Photograph of the Black/Creek Indian Perryman family reunion in Tulsa, OK. See more

Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Eddie Faye Gates, Tulsa OK, author, historian, community activist, 2014.117.41
Latino Studies does not exclusively study Hispanic cultures; it includes indigenous and African cultures as well.

As curator of Latino Studies at the National Museum of African American History and Culture, I view this “Taíno” bottle as an example of tensions between scholarly and everyday identity labels. NMAI curator Antonio Curet has noted that the label “Taíno” incorrectly lumps together the multitude of indigenous groups that occupied the Caribbean and that the term obscures their distinctions and diversity. As a fellow anthropologist, I agree. However, I also recognize the imperfect application of labels as a unifying tool to resist European-centered histories in the effort to reclaim marginalized identities.

Pariah by Marcos Dimas, 1971-1972: Dimas, and other artists of the Taller Boricua, created works that affirmed the hybrid African and indigenous identity of Puerto Ricans. See more.

Smithsonian American Art Museum. Museum purchase through the Luisita L. and Franz H. Denghausen Endowment. © 1971-1972, Marcos Dimas

Latino Studies does not exclusively study Hispanic cultures; it includes indigenous and African cultures as well. This “Taíno” bottle from Quisqueya—the indigenous name for the Dominican Republic—is one example of this multi-faceted cultural history. The Puerto Rican civil rights movements in New York provide more contemporary examples. During that era, artists of Taller Boricua celebrated their African and indigenous ancestry through their art, while the Young Lords collectively asserted Afro-Taíno and Afro-Boricua identities. Although flawed, these labels aim to elevate indigenous and African heritage and subvert European-centered histories of Latino identity.

The cover of the Palante newspaper has a blue background and a photograph.  The photograph features six leaders of the Young Lords Party, including Juan Gonzalez, Juan "Fi" Ortiz, Gloria Gonzalez, Denise Oliver, David Perez, and Pablo "Yoruba" Guzman in front of a Puerto Rican flag. At the top of front is the mast head, outlined in black, with black text that reads: PALANTE / 25 / cents / LATIN REVOLUTIONARY NEWS SERVICE / YOUNG LORDS PARTY. The mast head features a silhouette of the logo of the Young Lords

Young Lords Party: Palante, a newspaper of the NY-based Young Lords Party, Volume 3, Number 3. The Young Lords Party, a Puerto Rican nationalist group, identified as Afro-Boricuas and of Afro-Taíno culture. See more.

Collection of the National Museum of African American History and Culture, 2014.109.7.10

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