Created by
Carroll, Mary Ann, American, 1940 - 2019
ca. 1967
oil paint on fiberboard
H x W x D (framed): 26 3/8 × 14 3/8 × 1 1/4 in. (67 × 36.5 × 3.2 cm)
Mary Ann Carroll was a member of the Florida Highwaymen, a group of self-taught artists who worked in Florida starting in the 1950s. The Highwaymen leveraged their entrepreneurial spirit to create an independent artistic tradition during the era of segregation. The group was made up of twenty-six artists, with Carroll as the sole woman. Their art provided an alternative livelihood to the regional agricultural and factory work. Carroll was mentored by another Highwaymen, Harold Newton. She is also a pastor and speaker.
The group created a great quantity of work, often dozens of paintings per day, which would be sold inexpensively. The paintings depict Florida landscapes and are renowned for their vibrant colors and serene scenes. Like other Highwaymen, Carroll sold her paintings out of her car along roadways. This practice led Jim Finch, a Sebring Florida gallery owner, to name the group the “Highwaymen” in a 1995 essay, prompting a renewed public interest. In 2004, they were inducted into the Florida Artists Hall of Fame.
Fort Pierce and the Florida Humanities Council. “The Highwaymen Trail.” 2012.
Oil painting of a moonlit bay with vegetation on the banks. The painting (a) has trees and grasses along the banks of the water in dark colors. The top of a palm tree is at the bottom left. A large tree is on the right side. Barren, twisted branches extend over the water. The grey and blue sky is shown in the center of the image. The moon is shown on the left side, partially out of frame. The white moonlight is reflected on the bay. The work is signed at the bottom right. There is deteriorating masking tape along the back edges. There is loss along the edges of the board.
The wooden frame (b) is made from repurposed construction materials. The light brown wood is visible on most of the frame. There is gold-colored paint along the edge closest to the painting. The board is secured to the frame with square metal hooks. A metal wire anchored with a screw eye on each side is strung across the upper back.
Place made
Fort Pierce, Saint Lucie County, Florida, United States, North and Central America
Visual Arts
oil paintings
American South
Credit Line
Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Gift of Robert and Flory Kahn in memory of Wolf and Tybe Kahn
Object number
Restrictions & Rights
Unknown - Restrictions Possible
Rights assessment and proper usage is the responsibility of the user.

Cataloging is an ongoing process and we may update this record as we conduct additional research and review. If you have more information about this object, please contact us at

Share this page